Our systems will be undergoing scheduled maintenance beginning Monday, June 14, 2021 at 5PM PST and ending Tuesday, June 15, 2021 at 10AM PST. Our websites and surveys will not be available during this maintenance period. Thank you for your understanding and cooperation.
Publications
Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Comparison of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Instruments from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition vs Fifth Edition in a Large Cohort of US Military Service Members and Veterans JAMA Network Open 2021 April; 4(4): e218072

LeardMann CA, McMaster HS, Warner S, Esquivel AP, Porter B, Powell TM, Tu XM, Lee WW, Rull RP, Hoge CW

To assist in the longitudinal assessment of PTSD spanning the transition between the DSM-IV and DSM-V, we compared the PTSD Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C) with the PCL for DSM-5 (PCL-5) in a sample of 1,921 participants from the Millennium Cohort Study. There was substantial to excellent agreement when comparing individual items, frequency of probably PTSD, and sum scores; and nearly identical associations with comorbid conditions. Our results provide support that PTSD can be successfully assessed and compared over time with either PCL instrument in veteran and military populations.

View full text

Military life stressors, family communication and satisfaction: Associations with children’s psychosocial outcomes Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma 2019 May;13(1):75-87

Briggs EC, Fairbank JA, Tunno AM, Lee RC, Corry NH, Pflieger JC, Stander VA, Murphy RA

The purpose of this study was to examine facets of military life and family factors that may impact child psychosocial and mental health functioning. Using baseline data from the Millennium Cohort Family Study, this study examined family demographics and composition (age, number of children), military life stressors (injury, family, and deployment stressors), family communication and satisfaction, parental social functioning, and child mental health and behavioral functioning. Injury- and family-related military stressors were significant indicators of heightened risk for child mental health conditions, whereas greater levels of parental social functioning and family satisfaction were associated with lower risk of child mental health conditions. Differential associations were found in child functioning when military-related variables (e.g., service component), sociodemographic, and family composition factors (number and age of the children in the home) were examined. These findings underscore the importance of examining the “whole child” within the broader ecological and military family context to understand factors associated with children’s mental and behavioral health. The results have considerable implications for the development of policies to support children and families encountering multiple stressors related to a parent’s military service.

View abstract

Patterns of strengths in U.S. military couples Journal of Child and Family Studies 2019 Sep;29:1249–1263

Pflieger JC, Porter B, Carballo CE, Stander VA, Corry NH

This study examined patterns of strengths among military couples in the Millennium Cohort Family Study (n = 9,642), including beliefs (self-mastery, positive outlook, spirituality), social support, and family communication. Results supported five patterns of strengths, with 58.4% of couples exhibiting a pattern of high strengths; 33.6% of couples exhibiting two patterns in which one member of the couple was higher on strengths than the other member; 5.1% of couples exhibiting a pattern of low strengths; and 2.9% of couples exhibiting a pattern of moderately high beliefs and social support, yet very low family communication. Higher spouse education level and service member officer rank consistently distinguished patterns of high strengths, whereas couples with lower mental health, marital quality, and military satisfaction were more likely to exhibit patterns of low strengths. These results provide a snapshot of couples early in the military career cycle and highlight the need to adopt a family-centered perspective in military resilience programs and policies.

View abstract

Mental health of children of deployed and non-deployed US military service members: The Millennium Cohort Family Study Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 2018 Dec;39(9):683-692

Fairbank JA, Briggs EC, Lee RC, Corry NH, Pflieger JC, Gerrity ET, Amaya-Jackson LM, Stander VA, Murphy RA

Prior research has found that youth in military families were significantly more likely to report higher rates of major depression and use of illicit drugs in comparison to their non-military counterparts. The present study investigated the associations between service member deployment experiences and family demographic factors and children’s mental health and psychological functioning, utilizing data collected from 9,872 Service members/military spouses through both online and mail survey options. The results from the Family Study indicated that while most spouses did not report that their children had mental health, emotional, or behavioral difficulties regardless of parental deployment status, a significant minority of children whose parents had been combat deployed were more likely to have been diagnosed with ADD/ADHD and depression by a doctor or health professional in comparison to youth without a deployed parent. Children with a non-combat deployed service member parent were also more likely to have been assigned a diagnosis of depression in comparison to youth without a deployed parent.

View abstract

Influence of work and life stressors on marital quality among dual and non-dual military couples Journal of Family Issues 2020 Nov;41(11):2045-2064

Woodall KA, Richardson SM, Pflieger JC, Hawkins SA, Stander VA

Maintaining a healthy marriage may be challenging for military couples as they attempt to balance the demands of work and family; for dual-military couples, this can be even more challenging. Using data from the Millennium Cohort Family Study, we examined whether military stress experiences negatively impact marital quality through the mediation of work-family conflict. Spouse gender and dual-military status were included as moderators. Results demonstrated that more military stress experiences was related to lower marital quality, which was mediated by work-family conflict. Additionally, female dual spouses reported lower marital quality than male dual spouses and civilian spouses. Findings from this study highlight the importance of providing support to military spouses for stressful military events and potentially tailoring support services for female dual spouses to improve marital quality.

View abstract

The impact of military and nonmilitary experiences on marriage: Examining the military spouses' perspective Journal of Traumatic Stress 2018 Oct;31(5):719-729

Pflieger JC, LeardMann CA, McMaster HS, Donoho CJ, Riviere LA

This study examined the impact of military experiences and nonmilitary family stressors on the military spouse’s perception of marital quality. After adjusting for demographic, relationship, and military characteristics, results indicated that most military experiences did not have a direct association with low marital quality, with the exception of service member posttraumatic stress. Rather, nonmilitary experiences of the military spouse, including lack of social support, caregiver burden, work-family conflict, and financial strain, increased odds of low marital quality. These findings suggest that providing additional supports to address nonmilitary family stressors experienced by spouses may strengthen military marriages.

View full text

Posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters in service members predict new-onset depression among military spouses Journal of Traumatic Stress Epub ahead of print

Walter KH, LeardMann CA, Carballo CE, McMaster HM, Donoho CJ, Stander VA

Among spouses of service members with probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 14% met criteria for new-onset depression over a 3-year period. The service member’s PTSD symptom cluster of effortful avoidance was associated with an increased risk of new-onset depression in spouses, underscoring the impact of service member psychological symptoms on the spouse.

View full text

A Model of Deployment Readiness among Military Spouses: The Role of Mental Health and Deployment-Related Personal Growth Military Behavioral Health 2020 Oct; 8(4): 378-395

Richardson SM, Pflieger JC, Woodall KA, Stander VA, Riviere LA

The purpose of the current investigation was to examine deployment-related risks, resources, and mediators contributing to military spouse perception of readiness for future service member deployments. Findings indicated that service member combat and injury negatively impacted spouse perception of deployment readiness through detriments to service member and spouse mental health. However, informal support and deployment communication were positively related to mental health for both partners, leading to improved spouse-perceived deployment readiness.

View abstract

High-risk and long-term opioid prescribing to military spouses in the Millennium Cohort Family Study Military Medicine 2020 Sep;185(9-10):e1759-e1769

McDonald DC, Radakrishnan S, Sparks AC, Corry NH, Carballo CE, Carlson K, Stander VA

The use and misuse of opioids by active service members has been examined in several studies, but little is known about their spouses' opioid use. This study estimates the number of military spouses who received high-risk or long-term opioid prescriptions between 2010 and 2014, and addresses how the Military Health System can help prevent risky prescribing in order to improve military force readiness. Using data from the Millennium Cohort Family Study and the Pharmacy Data Transaction Service, this study found that nearly 1 in 10 military spouses received an opioid prescription that put their health at risk. Spouses with physical pain, a lack of social support, and adverse childhood experiences were all associated with receiving higher risk opioid prescriptions.

View full text

Demographic variation in military life stress and perceived support among military spouses Military Medicine 2021 Jan; 186(1):214-221

Corry NH, Williams CS, Radakrishnan S, McMaster HS, Sparks AC, Briggs-King EC, Karon SS, Stander VA

Military spouses play a critical role in supporting service members and the family unit, and experience unique stressors as a result of military life. Using data from the Millennium Cohort Family Study, a nationwide survey of 9,872 married spouses of service members with 2–5 years of military service, we examined differences in experiences of military life stress and perceived support across multiple subgroups of military spouses to identify groups potentially at risk. Key outcomes included military-related stressors, perceived social support and support from the military, and coping; predictors included spouse sociodemographic, military population, and family characteristics. Certain spouses (>35 years, had a high school diploma or less, fulltime or not employed, had 2+ children, or married to service members in the Army, Navy, or Marine Corps) were more likely to experience heightened military stress, less social support, and/or poorer coping skills. Findings may inform culturally relevant initiatives to enhance social support and connectedness among at-risk military spouses.

View full text

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Defense of non-U.S. Government sites or the information, products, or services contained therein. Although the Department of Defense may or may not use these sites as additional distribution channels for Department of Defense information, it does not exercise editorial control over all of the information that you may find at these locations. Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this website.

Publication badge scores are provided by Altmetric.